A 6G network is a cellular network that uses cognitive technologies, such as artificial intelligence (AI), to enable high-speed, low-latency communication at a rate that is several times faster than that of 5G networks.
If history is any guide, new wireless technology generations appear every decade, therefore the launch of 6G would occur in the early 2030s as a people in the sector expect this.
The third generation of wireless technology was released in 2002, the fourth in 2010, and 5G in 2018. The US has a history of introducing new wireless technology iterations. The so-called "zero G" existed prior to the second and first generations, which were in the 1980s and early 1990s, respectively.
The research on 6G has started in 2020 which indeed marks a long start of an intensive research and process.
Trials to make sure the technology operates in the proper configuration would start the standardization process by 2024, which is anticipated to go until 2026.
The technology that reacts to the defined key performance metrics will be chosen after testing, and researchers will then go on to the next phase, which involves selecting the frequencies to be used by around 2027.
This process would extend until 2028 or 2029, presumably, 6G networks are installed by 2030.
Challenges Associated with 6G
The most crucial step, aside from the lengthy development and standardization process, is to include all organizations and then reach consensus on the standards in order to move forward fast and meet deadlines.
The problem of energy use is the second issue. In keeping with the objectives of the Cop climate conference, the industry is searching for further methods to make 6G technology more sustainable.
The challenge of "connecting the unconnected" is another issue that needs to be addressed in order to ensure that no one is left out of communication. This involves providing network coverage to most, if not all, regions of the world, especially in "dead spots" like deserts.
Effectiveness of 6G in Compared to 5G
5G is the fastest technology available right now. However, 6G allows for download speeds that are up to 500 times faster than what 5G offers, even for movies with 8K video resolution. Additionally, 6G will roughly 100 times increase the capacity of current 5G networks.
Latency, or the time between transmitting and receiving information, will be lowered by a factor of 10 to 0.1 millisecond.
Operation of 6G
Data transmission at extremely high frequencies is a major area of 6G research. Despite the fact that no frequency above 39GHz is currently in use, 5G theoretically has the capacity to support frequencies up to 100GHz. For 6G, engineers are working to transfer data over waves with frequencies in the GHz or THz ranges. Despite the tiny size and fragility of these waves, there is still a vast amount of untapped spectrum that might enable tremendous data transfer rates.
Despite the fact that hub-and-spoke architecture is still the foundation of most 5G networks, mesh networking has been a hot topic for decades. Therefore, anchor nodes (cell towers), which connect to a backbone, are linked to end-user devices (phones). 6G may employ devices to act as data amplifiers for one another, enabling each device to both use and increase coverage.
6G will rely on the selective application of various frequencies to assess absorption and modify wavelengths as necessary. This method will take use of the fact that all materials have equal emissions and absorption frequencies, and that atoms and molecules emit and absorb electromagnetic radiation at certain wavelengths.